UPSC Syllabus revised (Pre and Mains)

IAS Preliminary Examination CSAT Paper – 1 (GS)

Every Aspirant needs Syllabus for the reputed IAS exam. you should download and read the syllabus very carefully and start your preparations accordingly. IAS Exam has two compulsory papers with MCQ Questions of 200 marks each. There is no Official Cut-off, and you must qualify in both the papers.

Paper I – (200 marks) Duration : Two hours

·         Current events of national and international importance.

·         History of India and Indian National Movement.

·         Indian and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.

·         Indian Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.

·         Economic and Social Development -Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc.

·         General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change – that do not require subject specialisation

·         General Science.

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MPSC Pre Syllabys

राज्यसेवा पूर्व परीक्षा अभ्यासक्रम (Revised) 

GS-Paper I – (200 marks)

(1) Current events of state, national and international importance. (राज्य, राष्ट्रीय आणि आंतरराष्ट्रीय स्तरावरील महत्वाच्या चालू घडामोडी)
(2) History of India (with special reference to Maharashtra) and Indian National Movement. (भारतीय इतिहास (महाराष्ट्राच्या संदर्भात) व राष्ट्रीय चळवळ)
(3) Maharashtra, India and World Geography – Physical, Social, Economic Geography of
Maharashtra, India and the World. (महाराष्ट्राचा, भारताचा व जगाचा भौतिक, सामाजिक व आर्थिक भूगोल)
(4) Maharashtra and India – Polity and Governance – Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj,Urban Governance, Public Policy, Rights issues, etc. (महाराष्ट्राची व भारताची राज्यव्यवस्था आणि शासन)
(5) Economic and Social Development – Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion,
Demographics, Social Sector initiatives, etc. (आर्थिक व सामाजिक विकास)
(6) General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate Change-that do not require subject specialisation. (पर्यावरणीय परिस्थिती)
(7) General Science (सामान्य विज्ञान) Continue reading →

The Tempest by William Shakespeare



William Shakespeare


FULL TITLE  ·  The Tempest

AUTHOR · William Shakespeare


GENRE · Romance

LANGUAGE · Elizabethan English

TIME AND PLACE WRITTEN ·  1610–1611; England


PUBLISHER · Isaac Jaggard and Edward Blount

TONE · Dreamy, mysterious, magical

SETTING (TIME) · The Renaissance

SETTING (PLACE) · An island in the Mediterranean sea, probably off the coast of Italy

PROTAGONIST · Prospero Continue reading →

The Way of the World By William Congreve

The Way of the World 

About The Way of the World

The Restoration Period

The term Restoration drama, usually applied to the plays written during the period from 1660 to 1700 or 1710, is not really satisfactory. Charles II was restored to the English throne in 1660. By 1700, Charles II had died, his brother James had reigned for five years and had been deposed in the “glorious revolution,” or “bloodless revolution,” of 1688, and William and Mary had reigned for twelve years. Congreve was not born until ten years after the Restoration; The Way of the World was first presented when he was thirty. By that time, some of the most obvious and most notorious features of the period no longer existed or existed only in much weaker forms.

The easiest way to grasp the particular tone of the Restoration period is to think of it as a reaction against the Puritanism of Cromwell and the period of the Commonwealth. The dissolute court of Charles II is well known in history and legend. It was the result of a blend of world-weariness, cynicism, and debauchery, dominated by a group of exiles who returned to their country determined to make up for the lean years history had imposed upon them. In general, the people of England welcomed the change. But such a reaction had only a limited life; the court gradually shifted from undisguised dissipation to the pattern of covert intrigues, political and domestic, and the clandestine adulteries that always existed in English courts. Continue reading →

Lochinvar by Sir Walter Scott

Lochinvar by Sir Walter Scott

O young Lochinvar is come out of the west,

Through all the wide Border his steed was the best;

And save his good broadsword he weapons had none,

He rode all unarm’d, and he rode all alone.

So faithful in love, and so dauntless in war,

There never was knight like the young Lochinvar. Continue reading →

My Last Duchess by Robert Browning

My Last Duchess by Robert Browning

That’s my last Duchess painted on the wall,
Looking as if she were alive. I call
That piece a wonder, now: Fra Pandolf’s hands
Worked busily a day, and there she stands.
Will’t please you sit and look at her? I said
“Fra Pandolf” by design, for never read
Strangers like you that pictured countenance,
The depth and passion of its earnest glance,
But to myself they turned (since none puts by
The curtain I have drawn for you, but I)
And seemed as they would ask me, if they durst,
How such a glance came there; so, not the first
Are you to turn and ask thus. Sir, ’twas not
Her husband’s presence only, called that spot
Of joy into the Duchess’ cheek: perhaps
Fra Pandolf chanced to say “Her mantle laps
Over my lady’s wrist too much,” or “Paint
Must never hope to reproduce the faint
Half-flush that dies along her throat”: such stuff
Was courtesy, she thought, and cause enough
For calling up that spot of joy. She had
A heart—how shall I say?—too soon made glad,
Too easily impressed; she liked whate’er
She looked on, and her looks went everywhere.
Sir, ’twas all one! My favour at her breast,
The dropping of the daylight in the West,
The bough of cherries some officious fool
Broke in the orchard for her, the white mule
She rode with round the terrace—all and each
Would draw from her alike the approving speech,
Or blush, at least. She thanked men,—good! but thanked
Somehow—I know not how—as if she ranked
My gift of a nine-hundred-years-old name
With anybody’s gift. Who’d stoop to blame
This sort of trifling? Even had you skill
In speech—(which I have not)—to make your will
Quite clear to such an one, and say, “Just this
Or that in you disgusts me; here you miss,
Or there exceed the mark”—and if she let
Herself be lessoned so, nor plainly set
Her wits to yours, forsooth, and made excuse,
—E’en then would be some stooping; and I choose
Never to stoop. Oh sir, she smiled, no doubt,
Whene’er I passed her; but who passed without
Much the same smile? This grew; I gave commands;
Then all smiles stopped together. There she stands
As if alive. Will’t please you rise? We’ll meet
The company below, then. I repeat,
The Count your master’s known munificence
Is ample warrant that no just pretence
Of mine for dowry will be disallowed;
Though his fair daughter’s self, as I avowed
At starting, is my object. Nay, we’ll go
Together down, sir. Notice Neptune, though,
Taming a sea-horse, thought a rarity,
Which Claus of Innsbruck cast in bronze for me!
Continue reading →

Piping Down the Valleys Wild by William Blake

Piping Down the Valleys Wild

by William Blake

Piping down the valleys wild,
   Piping songs of pleasant glee,
On a cloud I saw a child,
   And he laughing said to me:—

“Pipe a song about a lamb:”
   So I piped with merry cheer.
“Piper, pipe that song again:”
   So I piped: he wept to hear.

“Drop thy pipe, thy happy pipe,
   Sing thy songs of happy cheer!”
So I sang the same again,
   While he wept with joy to hear.

“Piper, sit thee down and write
   In a book, that all may read—”
So he vanished from my sight;
   And I plucked a hollow reed,

And I made a rural pen,
   And I stained the water clear,
And I wrote my happy songs
   Every child may joy to hear.

Summary of the Poem

Blake’s Songs of Innocence and Experience (1794) juxtapose the innocent, pastoral world of childhood against an adult world of corruption and repression; while such poems as “The Lamb” represent a meek virtue, poems like “The Tiger” exhibit opposing, darker forces. Thus the collection as a whole explores the value and limitations of two different perspectives on the world. Many of the poems fall into pairs, so that the same situation or problem is seen through the lens of innocence first and then experience. Blake does not identify himself wholly with either view; most of the poems are dramatic–that is, in the voice of a speaker other than the poet himself. Blake stands outside innocence and experience, in a distanced position from which he hopes to be able to recognize and correct the fallacies of both. In particular, he pits himself against despotic authority, restrictive morality, sexual repression, and institutionalized religion; his great insight is into the way these separate modes of control work together to squelch what is most holy in human beings.

Blake imagines that a child on a cloud ordered him to write these poems for children. While Blake descended down the wild forest stretching to the valley down below, he was playing the sweet melodious tunes of the pan-pipe with a pleasant glee; a feeling of great happiness; and in the midst of preludes of the music that he played, he claimed to have seen an angelic child standing on the cloud and laughing with joy, instructed him to play the tune and pipe the song about the Lamb. This order was later fulfilled in Blake’s third “Songs of Innocence”; “Little Lamb, who made thee?” The lamb symbolizes youth and meekness. Blake complied with the little child’s order, piped the song and played the tune with a merry spirit. After he had finished playing for the first time, the child ordered Blake to pipe the song again. So Blake piped the song again and the child wept as he heard it. The next thing that the child ordered was for Blake to stop playing the pipe and put it down aside. Blake was to sing his songs verbally in the merriest note and he did as he was told. The child wept even louder and with greater joy when he heard Blake sang his songs without the pipe. Then lastly, the child ordered the piper (Blake) to sit down and write in a book, that all may read for generations to come. “In a Book” here refers to the “Songs of Innocence”.

Blake then created a traditional pen of the (rural) country, which was made out of reed and wrote all his happy songs. He made the ink out of water and all the songs he wrote were meant for every child to hear and enjoy.

Soap by Nissim Ezekiel

Soap  by Nissim Ezekiel

Some people are not having manners,
this I am always observing,
For example other day I find
I am needing soap
For ordinary washing myself purposes.
So I’m going to one small shop
nearby in my lane and I’m asking
for well-known brand soap.

That shopman he’s giving me soap
but I’m finding it defective version.
So I’m saying very politely — –
though in Hindi I’m saying it,
and my Hindi is not so good as my English,
Please to excuse me
but this is defective version of well-known brand soap.

That shopman is saying
and very rudely he is saying it,
What is wrong with soap?
Still I am keeping my temper
and repeating very smilingly
Please to note this defect in soap,
and still he is denying the truth.

So I’m getting very angry that time
and with loud voice I am saying
Now he is shouting
Come outside and I will show you
Then I am shouting
What you will show me
Which I haven’t got already?
It is vulgar thing to say
but I am saying it.

Now small crowd is collecting
and shopman is much bigger than me,
and I am not caring so much
for small defect in well-known brand soap.
So I’m saying
Alright OK Alright OK
this time I will take
but not next time.  

‘Soap’ is the important poem of Nissim Ezekiel. Nissim Ezeliel is important figure of Indian literature in English. He has formulated basic principles of life through this poem. Marriage, love, breakup, sex, etc are the themes of his poems.

  ‘Soap’, is a simple poem to understand. It’s external meaning of poem, but when we go through details of it, then we identify it is not a poem which has written on trivial or ordinary topic. It formulates principles of life. Adaptability with the time and adjustment with the situation is the central theme of the poem. Survival of the fittest is the basic feature for animated things. ‘Soap’, is closely explains all these principles clearly. The poem opens with ordinary conversation between shopkeeper and poet. Poet wants to purchase of Branded soap, Shopkeeper gives ordinary soap saying it is branded one. When poet asks about, differences between ordinary soap and branded soap. Shopkeeper started to argue with poet by saying that you must purchase whatever I have given. Poet is intellectual figure tries to plead argument intelligently but in vain, shopkeeper is not ready to accept poet’s argument. Meantime shopkeeper uses slang, language, which is many aesthetic part of poem. Poe was intended to reply shopkeeper in tit for tat form but shopkeeper is very rude in his behavior. During the argument public gathered over and started to take enjoy over the controversy. The personality of shopkeeper was very strong contrary poet’s personality was thin. It was contrast couple in reference to power.       By taking this principle, shopkeeper starts to impose the decision on poet and forcefully compelled to persuade to take ordinary type of soap.  In the eventually poet accepts the decision unwillingly. Might is right applies here poet withdraws has plead very consciously and agrees to accept that soap.

Man differs from other animals because; he could easily adapt the situation. In real life person should adapt the situation. In real life person should adopt things as per demand of time then human being could survive. Shopkeeper was powerful personality and poet was trivial personality. Poet unable to stand before the shopkeeper, this thing he understood cleverly and withdrawal    his plead against shopkeeper.


Ode to a Nightingale by John Keats

Ode to a Nightingale

 John Keats


The speaker opens with a declaration of his own heartache. He feels numb, as though he had taken a drug only a moment ago. He is addressing a nightingale he hears singing somewhere in the forest and says that his “drowsy numbness” is not from envy of the nightingale’s happiness, but rather from sharing it too completely; he is “too happy” that the nightingale sings the music of summer from amid some unseen plot of green trees and shadows.

In the second stanza, the speaker longs for the oblivion of alcohol, expressing his wish for wine, “a draught of vintage,” that would taste like the country and like peasant dances, and let him “leave the world unseen” and disappear into the dim forest with the nightingale. In the third stanza, he explains his desire to fade away, saying he would like to forget the troubles the nightingale has never known: “the weariness, the fever, and the fret” of human life, with its consciousness that everything is mortal and nothing lasts. Youth “grows pale, and spectre-thin, and dies,” and “beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes.” Continue reading →

On His Blindness by John Milton

On His Blindness: John Milton

The first seven and a half lines of this poem are one big, long, confusing sentence. Here’s our summary: “When I think of how I have lost my vision even before middle age, and how I am unable to use my best talent to serve God, I want to ask if God requires his servants to work for him even if they don’t have vision.”

But before he can speak up, a figure called Patience answers his question. Patience is like, “You think God needs your work? No, man. His best servants are the ones who bear life’s burden the best. He already has thousands of people running around across land and sea to serve him. You can just stand right there and wait on him, and that’s enough.” Continue reading →

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